Assessing electromagnetic field exposure levels in multi-active reconfigurable intelligent surface assisted 5G network

Mohammed Ahmed Salem, Heng Siong Lim, Ming Yam Chua, Khaled Abdulaziz Alaghbari, Charilaos Zarakovitis, Su Fong Chien


As 5G mobile networks continue to proliferate in dense urban environments, it becomes increasingly important to understand and mitigate excessive electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure. This study investigates how the downlink EMF exposure levels of 5G millimeter wave (mm-wave) mobile networks are influenced by the integration of multi-active reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs), using a ray-tracing approach. Our research employs a comprehensive two-step methodology: Firstly, we introduce a new RIS-assisted 5G mm-wave network planning technique. This technique leverages a machine learning (ML) approach for the classification of multi-RIS clusters. The primary goal is to optimize coverage while minimizing the number of required RIS deployments. This is achieved by strategically placing RISs based on the ML classification, ultimately aiming to enhance network efficiency. Secondly, we conducted a thorough comparative analysis, evaluating the impact of both passive and active RISs on EMF exposure level throughout a dense urban environment. Passive RIS and active RIS differ in their adaptability to changing network conditions. The result shows that the influence of multi-active RISs on EMF exposure is significant (about 7.5 times higher) compared to passive RISs.


5G mobile networks; Electromagnetic field exposure machine learning; Millimeter wave; Power density; Reconfigurable intelligent surface

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International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE)
p-ISSN 2088-8708, e-ISSN 2722-2578

This journal is published by the Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science (IAES) in collaboration with Intelektual Pustaka Media Utama (IPMU).