Blockchain for global vaccinations efforts: State of the art, challenges, and future directions

Jalal Al-Muhtadi, Abeer Hassan, Kashif Saleem, Amjad Gawanmeh, Joel Jose Puga Coelho Rodrigues


The emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global crisis negatively affected all aspects of human life. One of the most important methods used worldwide to survive this global crisis is the vaccination process to circumvent the proliferation of this pandemic. Many restrictions were alleviated in many countries such as access to public facilities and events. There is a huge amount of data about vaccination campaigns that are collected and maintained worldwide. Although the vaccination data can be analyzed to find out how the alleviation of restrictions can be applied if the data management process requires preserving key aspects like trust, transparency, and availability for easy and reliable access to such data. In this regard, blockchain technology is an excellent choice for meeting the requirements and providing a secure trusted framework for global verification. In this article, the related literature on blockchain technology is surveyed and summarized for all systems that embody solutions. The pros and cons of each solution are presented and provide a comparative summary. Furthermore, a detailed analysis is given to present the current problems and provide a promising mechanism to verify the vaccinated persons anywhere in the world, in a secure manner while retaining individual privacy.


blockchain; coronavirus disease 2019; decentralization; ethereum; immunization; merkle proof; vaccination;

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International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE)
p-ISSN 2088-8708, e-ISSN 2722-2578

This journal is published by the Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science (IAES) in collaboration with Intelektual Pustaka Media Utama (IPMU).