Bankruptcy prediction model using cost-sensitive extreme gradient boosting in the context of imbalanced datasets

Wirot Yotsawat, Kanyalag Phodong, Thawatchai Promrat, Pakaket Wattuya


In the process of bankruptcy prediction models, a class imbalanced problem has occurred which limits the performance of the models. Most prior research addressed the problem by applying resampling methods such as the synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE). However, resampling methods lead to other issues, e.g., increasing noisy data and training time during the process. To improve the bankruptcy prediction model, we propose cost-sensitive extreme gradient boosting (CS-XGB) to address the class imbalanced problem without requiring any resampling method. The proposed method’s effectiveness is evaluated on six real-world datasets, i.e., the LendingClub, and five Polish companies’ bankruptcy. This research compares the performance of CS-XGB with other ensemble methods, including SMOTE-XGB which applies SMOTE to the training set before the learning process. The experimental results show that i) based on LendingClub, the CS-XGB improves the performance of XGBoost and SMOTE-XGB by more than 50% and 33% on bankruptcy detection rate (BDR) and geometric mean (GM), respectively, and ii) the CS-XGB model outperforms random forest (RF), Bagging, AdaBoost, XGBoost, and SMOTE-XGB in terms of BDR, GM, and the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) based on the five Polish datasets. Besides, the CS-XGB model achieves good overall prediction results.


bankruptcy; cost-sensitive learning; extreme gradient boosting; imbalanced dataset; prediction model;

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International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE)
p-ISSN 2088-8708, e-ISSN 2722-2578

This journal is published by the Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science (IAES) in collaboration with Intelektual Pustaka Media Utama (IPMU).