Optimal reactive power pricing with transformer variable taps using genetic algorithm

Ahmad Kor, Hossein Zeynal, Zuhaina Zakaria, Seyed Hamid Hosseini


Ancillary services in interconnected networks are crucial to secure real power transfers, maintaining network reliability, improving power quality as well as network stability. Reactive power has always been of special importance as one of the most substantial ancillary services required to control the voltage in power grid. This paper presents a fresh reactive power pricing approach by embedding variable transformer taps into voltage ampere reactive (var) pricing method. To carry out the resultant optimization problem with a set of complicating constraints, the genetic algorithm takes part and guarantees the global optimal solution. The simulation results show that when transformer tap works as a control variable, the total cost of reactive power can be decreased. However, the incorporation of transformer taps in the pricing model can slightly complicates voltage profiles as the sensitivity of bus voltages to the reactive power variations in the system is increased. Further, the findings reiterate that by optimal position of transformer taps, technically, the security index of the system can be enhanced while the var price for end-users (lowest purchase cost for independent system operator) being more reasonable. To simulate the proposed reactive pricing method, the standard IEEE 30-bus system is employed to analyze the proposed method.


genetic algorithm; marginal prices; reactive power; restructuring; transformer variable taps;

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DOI: http://doi.org/10.11591/ijece.v13i2.pp1272-1280

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International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE)
p-ISSN 2088-8708, e-ISSN 2722-2578

This journal is published by the Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science (IAES) in collaboration with Intelektual Pustaka Media Utama (IPMU).