Best S-box amongst differently sized S-boxes based on the avalanche effect in ‎the advance encryption standard algorithm

Hadeel Mohammed Taher, Seddiq Qais Abd Al-Rahman, Shihab A. Shawkat


Substitution boxes are essential nonlinear modules that are popular in block ‎cipher algorithms. They ‎also play a significant role in the security area because of ‎their robustness to different linear ‎cryptanalysis. Each element of the state in a S-‎box is nonlinearly replaced using a lookup table. This ‎research presents the S-‎box, one of the fundamental parts of the advanced encryption standard ‎‎(AES) ‎algorithm. The S-box represents the confusion part in the AES. However, when ‎information ‎is shared between different devices in an authorized manner, the ‎algorithm should be able to ‎combine a sufficient number of confusion layers to ‎guarantee the avalanche effect (AE). ‎Subsequently, this research selects the best ‎S-box by comparing different sizes (4×4, 8×8, and ‎‎16×16) and measuring them ‎on the basis of the million-bit encryption. The AE is the main criterion ‎used in ‎choosing the best S-box. A robust and strong cryptography algorithm should be ‎able to ‎confirm the AEs. Results indicate that the 16×16 S-box with a 52% AE ‎ratio is the superior S-box


Advanced encryption standard; Avalanche effect; Cryptography algorithm; Information security; S-box

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International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE)
p-ISSN 2088-8708, e-ISSN 2722-2578