Principal coefficient encoding for subject-independent human activity analysis

Pang Ying Han, Sarmela Anak Perempuan Raja Sekaran, Ooi Shih Yin, Tan Teck Guang


Tracking human physical activity using smartphones is an emerging trend in healthcare monitoring and healthy lifestyle management. Neural networks are broadly used to analyze the inertial data of activity recognition. Inspired by the autoencoder neural networks, we propose a layer-wise network, namely principal coefficient encoder model (PCEM). Unlike the vanilla neural networks which apply random weight initialization andback-propagation for parameter updating, an optimized weight initialization is implemented in PCEM via principal coefficient learning. This principal coefficient encoding allows rapid data learning with no back-propagation intervention and no gigantic hyperparameter tuning. In PCEM, the most principal coefficients of the training data are determined to be the network weights. Two hidden layers with principal coefficient encoding are stacked in PCEM for the sake of deep architecture design. The performance of PCEM is evaluated based on a subject-independent protocol where training and testing samples are from different users, with no overlapping subjects in between the training and testing sets. This subject-independent protocol can better assess the generalization of the model to new data. Experimental results exhibit that PCEM outperforms certain state-of-the-art machine learning and deep learning models, including convolutional neural network, and deep belief network. PCEM can achieve ~97% accuracy in subject-independent human activity analysis.


1D inertial motion data; Autoencoder; Deep analytic model; Principal coefficient encoding; Subject-independent;

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International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE)
p-ISSN 2088-8708, e-ISSN 2722-2578

This journal is published by the Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science (IAES) in collaboration with Intelektual Pustaka Media Utama (IPMU).