Enhanced convolutional neural network for non-small cell lung cancer classification

Yahya Tashtoush, Rasha Obeidat, Abdallah Al-Shorman, Omar Darwish, Mohammad Al-Ramahi, Dirar Darweesh


Lung cancer is a common type of cancer that causes death if not detected early enough. Doctors use computed tomography (CT) images to diagnose lung cancer. The accuracy of the diagnosis relies highly on the doctor's expertise. Recently, clinical decision support systems based on deep learning valuable recommendations to doctors in their diagnoses. In this paper, we present several deep learning models to detect non-small cell lung cancer in CT images and differentiate its main subtypes namely adenocarcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. We adopted standard convolutional neural networks (CNN), visual geometry group-16 (VGG16), and VGG19. Besides, we introduce a variant of the CNN that is augmented with convolutional block attention modules (CBAM). CBAM aims to extract informative features by combining cross-channel and spatial information. We also propose variants of VGG16 and VGG19 that utilize a support vector machine (SVM) at the classification layer instead of SoftMax. We validated all models in this study through extensive experiments on a CT lung cancer dataset. Experimental results show that supplementing CNN with CBAM leads to consistent improvements over vanilla CNN. Results also show that the VGG variants that use the SVM classifier outperform the original VGGs by a significant margin.


Computed tomography; Convolutional block attention module; Convolutional neural networks; Deep learning; Lung cancer; Non-small cell carcinoma; VGG16

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DOI: http://doi.org/10.11591/ijece.v13i1.pp1024-1038

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International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE)
p-ISSN 2088-8708, e-ISSN 2722-2578

This journal is published by the Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science (IAES) in collaboration with Intelektual Pustaka Media Utama (IPMU).