Digital watermarking by utilizing the properties of self-organization map based on least significant bit and most significant bit

Khalid Kadhim Jabbar, Munthir Bahir Tuieb, Salam A. Thajeel


Information security is one of the most important branches concerned with maintaining the confidentiality and reliability of data and the medium for which it is transmitted. Digital watermarking is one of the common techniques in this field and it is developing greatly and rapidly due to the great importance it represents in the field of reliability and security. Most modern watermarking systems, however, use the self-organization map (SOM), which is safer than other algorithms because an unauthorized user cannot see the result of the SOM's training. Our method presents a semi-fragile watermark under spatial domain using least significant bit (LSB) and by relying on most significant bit (MSB) when the taken values equal to (2 or 4 bits) depending on the characteristics of SOM through developing the so-called best matching unit (BMU) which working to determine the best location for concealment. As a result, it shows us the ability of the proposed method to maintain the quality of the host with the ability to retrieve data, whether it is a binary image or a secret message.


Digital watermarking; Information security; Least significant bit; Most significant bit; Self-organization map

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International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE)
p-ISSN 2088-8708, e-ISSN 2722-2578