Effective classification of birds’ species based on transfer learning

Mohammed Alswaitti, Liao Zihao, Waleed Alomoush, Ayat Alrosan, Khalid Alissa


In recent years, with the deterioration of the earth’s ecological environment, the survival of birds has been more threatened. To protect birds and the diversity of species on earth, it is urgent to build an automatic bird image recognition system. Therefore, this paper assesses the performance of traditional machine learning and deep learning models on image recognition. Also, the help-ability of transfer learning in the field of image recognition is tested to evaluate the best model for bird recognition systems. Three groups of classifiers for bird recognition were constructed, namely, classifiers based on the traditional machine learning algorithms, convolutional neural networks, and transfer learning-based convolutional neural networks. After experiments, these three classifiers showed significant differences in the classification effect on the Kaggle-180-birds dataset. The experimental results finally prove that deep learning is more effective than traditional machine learning algorithms in image recognition as the number of bird species increases. Besides, the obtained results show that when the sample data is small, transfer learning can help the deep neural network classifier to improve classification accuracy.


Birds’ classification; Deep learning; Machine learning; Transfer learning;

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DOI: http://doi.org/10.11591/ijece.v12i4.pp4172-4184

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International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE)
p-ISSN 2088-8708, e-ISSN 2722-2578

This journal is published by the Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science (IAES) in collaboration with Intelektual Pustaka Media Utama (IPMU).