Research trends on CAPTCHA: A systematic literature

Igbekele Emmanuel O., Adebiyi Ayodele A., Ibikunle Francis A., Adebiyi Marion O., Olugbara O. Oludayo


The advent of technology has crept into virtually all sectors and this has culminated in automated processes making use of the Internet in executing various tasks and actions. Web services have now become the trend when it comes to providing solutions to mundane tasks. However, this development comes with the bottleneck of authenticity and intent of users. Providers of these Web services, whether as a platform, as a software or as an Infrastructure use various human interaction proof’s (HIPs) to validate authenticity and intent of its users. Completely automated public turing test to tell computer and human apart (CAPTCHA), a form of IDS in web services is advantageous. Research into CAPTCHA can be grouped into two -CAPTCHA development and CAPTCH recognition. Selective learning and convolutionary neural networks (CNN) as well as deep convolutionary neural network (DCNN) have become emerging trends in both the development and recognition of CAPTCHAs. This paper reviews critically over fifty article publications that shows the current trends in the area of the CAPTCHA scheme, its development and recognition mechanisms and the way forward in helping to ensure a robust and yet secure CAPTCHA development in guiding future research endeavor in the subject domain.


CAPTCHA; convolutionary neural network; deep convolutionary neural network; human interaction proofs; intrusion detection systems; web services;

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International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE)
p-ISSN 2088-8708, e-ISSN 2722-2578