Design and implementation of silicon single-photon avalanche photodiode modeling tool for QKD systems

Adil Fadhil Mushatet, Ahmed Ismael Khaleel, Shelan Khasro Tawfeeq


Single-photon detection concept is the most crucial factor that determines the performance of Quantum Key Distribution systems. In this paper, a simulator with time domain visualizers and configurable parameters using continuous time simulation approach is presented for modeling and investigating the performance of single-photon detectors operating in Gieger mode at the wavelength of 830 nm. The widely used C30921S silicon avalanche photodiode was modeled in terms of avalanche pulse, the effect of experiment conditions such as excess voltage, temperature and average photon number on the photon detection efficiency, dark count rate and afterpulse probability. This work shows a general repeatable modeling process for significant performance evaluation. The most remarkable result emerged from the simulated data generated and detected by commercial devices is that the modeling process provides guidance for single-photon detectors design and characterization. The validation and testing results of theĀ single-photon avalanche detectors (SPAD) simulator showed acceptable results with the theoretical and experimental results reported in related references and the device's data sheets.


dark count; detector efficiency; quantum key distribution; single-photon avalanche photodiodes;


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International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE)
p-ISSN 2088-8708, e-ISSN 2722-2578