A Blind Multiple Watermarks based on Human Visual Characteristics

Ferda Ernawan, Siau-Chuin Liew, Zuriani Mustaffa, Kohbalan Moorthy


Digital watermarking is an alternative solution to prevent unauthorized duplication, distribution and breach of ownership right. This paper proposes a watermarking scheme for multiple watermarks embedding. The embedding of multiple watermarks use a block-based scheme based on human visual characteristics. A threshold is used to determine the watermark values by modifying first column of the orthogonal U matrix obtained from Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). The tradeoff between normalize cross-correlation and imperceptibility of watermarked image from quantization steps was used to achieve an optimal threshold value. The results show that our proposed multiple watermarks scheme exhibit robustness against signal processing attacks. The proposed scheme demonstrates that the watermark recovery from chrominance blue was resistant against different types of attacks.


arnold scrambling; human visual characteristic; image watermarking; multiple watermarks ; singular value decomposition

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DOI: http://doi.org/10.11591/ijece.v8i4.pp2578-2587
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ISSN 2088-8708, e-ISSN 2722-2578